An electronic medical record (EMR) is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital or physician's office. Electronic medical records tend to be a part of a local stand-alone health information system that allows storage, retrieval and modification of records.
Studies call into question whether, in real life, EMRs improve the quality of care.2009 produced several articles raising doubts about EMR benefits. A major concern is the reduction of physician-patient interaction due to formatting constraints. For example, some doctors have reported that the use of checkboxes has led to less open-ended questions.
The Health-care Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS), a sparingly large U.S. health-care IT industry trade group, observed that EMR adoption rates "have been slower than expected in the United States, especially in comparison to other industry sectors and other developed countries. A key reason, aside from initial costs and lost productivity during EMR implementation, is lack of efficiency and usability of EMRs currently available." The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology of the Department of Commerce studied usability in 2011 and lists several specific issues that have been reported by health care workers. The U.S. military's EMR "AHLTA" was reported to have significant usability issues.
Electronic medical records, as medical records, must be kept in unaltered form and authenticated by the creator. Under data protection legislation, responsibility for patient records (irrespective of the form every one are kept in) is always on the creator and custodian of the record, usually a health care practice or facility. The physical medical records are the property of the medical provider (or facility) that prepares them. This includes films and tracings from diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, PET, MRI, ultrasound, etc. The patient, however, according to HIPAA, has a right to view the originals, and to obtain copies under law.
Using an EMR to read and write a patient's record is notonly possible through a workstation butalso depending on the kind of system and health care settings, also be possible through mobile devices that are handwriting capable. Electronic Medical Records may include access to Personal Health Records (PHR) which makes individual notes from an EMR readily visible and accessible for consumers.
Some EMR systems automatically monitor clinical events, by analyzing patient data from an electronic health record to predict, detect and potentially prevent adverse events. This include discharge/transfer orders, pharmacy orders, radiology results, laboratory results and any other data from ancillary services or provider notes.
The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code set is maintained by the American Medical Association through the CPT Editorial Panel. The CPT code set describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among physicians, coders, patients, accreditation organizations, and payers for administrative, financial, and analytical purposes.
New editions are released each October. The current version is the CPT 2012. It is available in both a standard edition and a professional edition.
CPT coding is similar to ICD-9 and ICD-10 coding, except that it identifies the services rendered rather than the diagnosis on the claim.
CPT is currently identified by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as Level 1 of the Health Care Procedure Coding System.
The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) developed by the American Medical. Association (AMA)
Health Level Seven (HL7), is a non-profit organization involved in the development of international health-care informatics interoperability standards. "HL7" also refers to some of the specific standards created by the organization (e.g., HL7 v2.x, v3.0, HL7 RIM).
HL7 and its members provide a framework (and related standards) for the exchange, integration, sharing, and retrieval of electronic health information. The 2.x versions of the standards, that support clinical practice and the management, delivery, and evaluation of health services, are the most commonly used in the world.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA; Pub.L. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1936, enacted August 21, 1996) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996. It was sponsored by Sen. Nancy Kassebaum (R-Kan.). Title I of HIPAA protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. Title II of HIPAA, known as the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers.
The Administrative Simplification provisions also address the security and privacy of health data. The standards are meant to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's health care system by encouraging the widespread use of electronic data interchange in the U.S. health care system.